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       Dialysis
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek "dialusis", meaning dissolution, "dia", meaning through, and "lysis", meaning loosening) is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with renal failure. Dialysis may be used for those with an acute disturbance in kidney function (acute kidney injury, previously acute renal failure) or for those with progressive but chronically worsening kidney function–a state known as chronic kidney disease stage 5 (previously chronic renal failure or end-stage kidney disease). The latter form may develop over months or years, but in contrast to acute kidney injury is not usually reversible, and dialysis is regarded as a "holding measure" until a renal transplant can be performed, or sometimes as the only supportive measure in those for whom a transplant would be inappropriate.
The kidneys have important roles in maintaining health. When healthy, the kidneys maintain the body's internal equilibrium of water and minerals (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfate). Those acidic metabolism end products that the body cannot get rid of via respiration are also excreted through the kidneys. The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system producing erythropoietin and calcitriol. Erythropoietin is involved in the production of red blood cells and calcitriol plays a role in bone formation. Dialysis is an imperfect treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct the endocrine functions of the kidney. Dialysis treatments replace some of these functions through diffusion (waste removal) and ultrafiltration (fluid removal).
 
       
      Hemodialysis
In hemodialysis, the patient's blood is pumped through the blood compartment of a dialyzer, exposing it to a partially permeable membrane. The dialyzer is composed of thousands of tiny synthetic hollow fibers. The fiber wall acts as the semipermeable membrane. Blood flows through the fibers, dialysis solution flows around the outside of the fibers, and water and wastes move between these two solutions. The cleansed blood is then returned via the circuit back to the body. Ultrafiltration occurs by increasing the hydrostatic pressure across the dialyzer membrane. This usually is done by applying a negative pressure to the dialysate compartment of the dialyzer. This pressure gradient causes water and dissolved solutes to move from blood to dialysate, and allows the removal of several litres of excess fluid during a typical 3 to 5 hour treatment. In the US, hemodialysis treatments are typically given in a dialysis center three times per week (due in the US to Medicare reimbursement rules); however, as of 2007 over 2,500 people in the US are dialyzing at home more frequently for various treatment lengths. Studies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of dialyzing 5 to 7 times a week, for 6 to 8 hours. This type of hemodialysis is usually called "nocturnal daily hemodialysis", which a study has shown a significant improvement in both small and large molecular weight clearance and decrease the requirement of taking phosphate binders. These frequent long treatments are often done at home while sleeping, but home dialysis is a flexible modality and schedules can be changed day to day, week to week. In general, studies have shown that both increased treatment length and frequency are clinically beneficial.
 
       
      Prescription
A prescription for dialysis by a nephrologist (a medical kidney specialist) will specify various parameters for a dialysis treatment. These include frequency (how many treatments per week), length of each treatment, and the blood and dialysis solution flow rates, as well as the size of the dialyzer. The composition of the dialysis solution is also sometimes adjusted in terms of its sodium and potassium and bicarbonate levels. In general, the larger the body size of an individual, the more dialysis he/she will need. In North America and the UK, 3-4 hour treatments (sometimes up to 5 hours for larger patients) given 3 times a week are typical. Twice-a-week sessions are limited to patients who have a substantial residual kidney function. Four sessions per week are often prescribed for larger patients, as well as patients who have trouble with fluid overload. Finally, there is growing interest in short daily home hemodialysis, which is 1.5 - 4 hr sessions given 5-7 times per week, usually at home. There also is interest in nocturnal dialysis, which involves dialyzing a patient, usually at home, for 8–10 hours per night, 3-6 nights per week. Nocturnal in-center dialysis, 3-4 times per week is also offered at a handful of dialysis units in the United States.
 
       
      Nursing care for hemodialysis patient
Adapt from nephrology nursing practice recommendations developed by Canadian Association of Nephrology and Technology (CANNT) based on best available evidence and clinical practice guidelines, a nephrology nurse should perform :
-Hemodialysis Vascular Access: Assess the fistula/graft and arm before, after each dialysis or every shift: the access flow, complications Assess the complication of central venous catheter: the tip placement, exit site, complications document and notify appropriate health care provider regarding any concerns. educates the patient with appropriate cleaning of fistula/graft and exit site; with recognizing and reporting signs and symptoms of infection and complication.
-Hemodialysis adequacy: Assesses patient constantly for signs and symptoms of inadequate dialysis. Assesses possible causes of inadequate dialysis. Educations patients the importance of receiving adequate dialysis.
Hemodialysis treatment and complications: Performs head to toe physical assessment before, during and after hemodialysis regarding complications and access’s security. Confirm and deliver dialysis prescription after review most update lab results. Address any concerns of the patient and educate patient when recognizing the learning gap.
Medication management and infection control practice: Collaborate with the patient to develop a medication regimen. Follow infection control guidelines as per unit protocol.
 
       
     

           DIALYSIS TREATMENT

     
  Kidney disease diagnosis and treatment of disease prevention, general information about dialysis treatment ..  
 

Kidney disease diagnosis and treatment of disease prevention, general information about dialysis treatment ..

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